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Sentinel lymph node mapping

Some forms of can­cer are known to spread in a pre­dictable fash­ion: first to a regional lymph node, then to the next ech­e­lon of lymph nodes and so on. The sen­tinel lymph node (SLN) is the first node that is reached by grow­ing can­cer cells from a pri­mary tumor. For such forms of can­cer, it is valu­able to find the sen­tinel lymph node and deter­mine if the can­cer has spread to this node. If no can­cer cells are found in the sen­tinel lymph node, there is a high likely that the can­cer has not spread to other parts of the body.

The prac­ti­cal use of ICG to visu­al­ize lymph nodes has been demon­strated by sev­eral groups[1] and the Spectrum cam­era plat­form is well equipped for SLN map­ping. The use of flu­o­res­cent imag­ing tech­niques pro­vides an alter­na­tive to radioiso­topes, which have dis­ad­van­tages: their avail­abil­ity is lim­ited, a spe­cial gamma ray detec­tor is required and this method may be harm­ful for the patient. The use of near infrared light elim­i­nates all these dis­ad­van­tages: near infrared light poses no risk to the patient, it can be cap­tured by con­ven­tional imag­ing cam­eras and it is uni­ver­sally available.


[1] To name a few (LUMC, Hut­te­man; FLARE pub­li­ca­tion; RUG, van Dam; MSKCC; …)

Breast can­cer

  • Clin­i­cal trial of com­bined radio– and fluorescence-guided sen­tinel lymph node biopsy in breast can­cer (2013, July) (Read more)
  • Ran­dom­ized com­par­i­son of near-infrared flu­o­res­cence imag­ing using indo­cya­nine green and 99(m) tech­netium with or with­out patent blue for the sen­tinel lymph node pro­ce­dure in breast can­cer patients (2012, Dec) (Read more)
  • A fea­si­bil­ity study (ICG-10) of indo­cya­nine green (ICG) flu­o­res­cence map­ping for sen­tinel lymph node detec­tion in early breast can­cer (2012, Aug) (Read more)

Ran­dom­ized, double-blind com­par­i­son of indo­cya­nine green with or with­out albu­min pre­mix­ing for near-infrared flu­o­res­cence imag­ing of sen­tinel lymph nodes in breast (2011, May) (Read more)

Colon & Col­orec­tal cancer

  • Laparo­scopic Sen­tinel Lymph Node Iden­ti­fi­ca­tion in Patients with Colon Car­ci­noma Using a Near-Infrared Dye: Descrip­tion of a New Tech­nique and Fea­si­bil­ity Study (2013, March) (Read more)
  • Ex vivo sen­tinel node map­ping in colon can­cer com­bin­ing blue dye stain­ing and flu­o­res­cence imag­ing (2013, Jan) (Read more)
  • Clin­i­cal trans­la­tion of ex vivo sen­tinel lymph node map­ping for col­orec­tal can­cer using invis­i­ble near-infrared flu­o­res­cence light. (2011, April) (Read more)


Cuta­neous melanoma

  • Effec­tive Low-dose Esca­la­tion of Indo­cya­nine Green for Near-infrared Flu­o­res­cent Sen­tinel Lymph Node Map­ping in Melanoma. (2013, feb) (Read more)
  • Lim­i­ta­tion of indo­cya­nine green flu­o­res­cence in iden­ti­fy­ing sen­tinel lymph node prior to skin inci­sion in cuta­neous melanoma (2013, feb) (Read more)
  • Dose opti­miza­tion for near-infrared flu­o­res­cence sen­tinel lymph node map­ping in patients with melanoma (2013, Jan) (Read more)

Head & Neck cancer

  • Near-infrared flu­o­res­cence sen­tinel lymph node map­ping of the oral cav­ity in head and neck can­cer patients (2013, Jan) (Read more)
  • Opti­cal imag­ing of oral squa­mous cell car­ci­noma and cer­vi­cal lymph node metas­ta­sis (2012, July) (Read more)

Ser­vi­cal Cancer

  • Ran­dom­ized com­par­i­son of near-infrared flu­o­res­cence lym­phatic trac­ers for sen­tinel lymph node map­ping of cer­vi­cal can­cer (2012, July) (Read more)

Vul­var cancer

  • Near-infrared flu­o­res­cence sen­tinel lymph node biopsy in vul­var can­cer: a ran­domised com­par­i­son of lym­phatic trac­ers (2013, Feb) (Read more)